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The Main Principles of Science

David GallagherFebruary 19, 2021,
The Main Principles of Science

Science is an organized, systematic enterprise that builds and organizes scientific information in visual observations and testable predictions about the natural world. It is the only discipline in which objective data can support any theory, whether it is a scientific experiment hypothesis or observation. The scientific method of investigation is well established in all fields of research. It has deep roots in science and is the driving force behind progress in all these fields, including engineering, physical sciences, and medicine.

Science deals with nature's laws and has many branches, namely Physical Science, which includes such physical sciences as astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics, and nuclear physics. It also includes such non-physical sciences as psychology, sociology, linguistics, anthropology, education, and political science. There are two main approaches to science, which are observational and experimental. For the observational approach, scientists follow natural phenomena, for example, the study of the solar system, the universe, and the Big Bounds. They try to understand the nature of these phenomena through telescopes and detectors.

On the other hand, experimental science put forward their hypotheses and test them by carrying them out on real bodies or in a controlled atmosphere without having any help from the natural environment. Thus they test their hypotheses and come up with more theories. They use various scientific methods like the comparative method, the replicability test, and the published results for scrutiny. Thus the two main branches of science are observational and experimental.

Observation science is usually general and broad in scope, whereas experimental science is more specific and more exacting. Thus they test a hypothesis by gathering data and then trying to fit this data to the theoretical prediction of the scientist's hypothesis. For this, they use different kinds of techniques like the scientific method and the indirect method. In the scientific method, the main goal is to find out the relationship between the observed facts and the theory that has been postulated. The indirect method involves testing only one hypothesis and observing whether it will support the data gathered. Thus we can see that both types of science are trying to find the truth in everything they observe.

The second main branch of science is deductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning science, the hypothesis is primarily derived from the scientific method. The hypothesis is tested by looking at how it would stand in reality. So for this type of science, the most important rule is induction. This principle is involved in all sciences and can be proved true or false through induction. Another important principle involved in science is that of contingency theory. Here, the deductive process's conclusion is based on because if the hypothesis were false, then the consequent hypothesis would also be false. 

For induction science, the most important rule is that you cannot deduce a conclusion about something until you have either seen it or not observed it. Thus we can see that all three main types of science are trying to solve the problems using different procedures.

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