Information technology is the application of machines to collect, retrieve, transfer, and analyze data or information. Generally, it is used in the context of organizational business activities rather than personal or entertainment technology. Generally, IT is regarded to be a smaller subset of computer sciences and communications technologies. It has become a crucial element in society due to its ability to integrate with other communication technologies and improve business performance effectively.
Information technology infrastructure constitutes the physical, logical, and operational components required to support information technology infrastructure. This includes network servers, workstations, client computers, desktop machines, laptops, printers, fax machines, modems, phone networks, voice and data cabling, application software, and other hardware components such as storage devices, desktop service providers, routers, switchboards, intrusion detection, and prevention equipment, management appliances, remote access applications, and closed-circuit television networks. In addition to these elements, the physical infrastructure also includes servers for storing data files; printing equipment; printed circuit boards (PCBs) for adding electronic parts to printed circuit boards (PCBs); integrated circuits (ICs) for various computer applications; motherboards for connecting the various components; and communication subsystems for obtaining and exchanging data. The technological foundation of information technology infrastructure is based on several factors. These include cost-effectiveness, reliability, security, speed of operation, and control.
Cost-effectiveness refers to the profit margin obtained from the implementation of Information Technology. Information Technology enables organizations to make most of their investments while maintaining minimum operating costs associated with the same.
Some of the foremost Information Technology operating costs associated with an organization include:
Human resource management: Information Technology has made quick decisions easier and has provided users with enhanced capabilities for storing, processing, and transmitting the information. This means that Information Technology plays a critical role in human resource management. This, in turn, means that Information Technology has enabled employees to increase efficiency by improving work quality. It also enables organizations to enhance their overall productivity by reducing the number of human resource managers and improving decision-making quality. With the increasing need for information technology in the business environment, the human resource management industry is growing tremendously.
Computer Network Security: A computer network is an extensive system that consists of many interacting computers. Therefore, it can be compared to the physical structure of a building in that it involves many complex interconnecting parts that require delicate and careful handling. Complex computer network security measures are required in the real world as much as they are in the virtual world. For example, an organization's computer network can be penetrated by hackers interested in sabotage, malware, or even access to sensitive company information. This has made quick decision-making even more challenging for organizations because of the need to make quick decisions that may involve the loss of confidential company data.
Computer Applications: A wide variety of computer applications, which are now known as web applications, have been developed to help people do many different things. Examples of these computer applications include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, video conferencing, marketing campaigns, and social network sites such as Facebook. All of these are affected by the impact of Information Technology on the business world. Organizations have needed to find ways to protect their computer networks, data, and budgets from outside attacks.
The results of such initiatives are evident in the increasing demand for systems and services associated with Information Technology across different industries. Information Technology infrastructure, therefore, plays a crucial role in determining the operational costs associated with Information Technology.